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    【魯品越】資本邏輯與當代中國社會結構

    外資與非國有資本已經成為中國經濟的重要組成部分。有人認為中國大陸資本必然產生雇傭關系,因此階級斗爭將成為社會主要矛盾。一些研究者將“階層結構”作為中國的主導性社會結構。本文遵循馬克思的資本邏輯的分析范式,認為歷史上簡單的資本形態生成的是階級對立的板塊社會結構,而在社會主義力量的引導與制約下,當代資本新形態將會逐漸消融階級階層結構,產生出以“復雜性”為特征的新型社會結構,這是構建社會主義和諧社會的基礎條件。

    馬克思《資本論》指出,資本在追求自身價值擴張的過程中生成了現代社會結構。資本擴張必須吸收三種“自然力”:勞動力(人力資源);自然界的“自然力”(自然資源);“社會勞動的自然力”(協作與分工等勞動關系中所蘊含的生產力)。資本吸收自然力轉化為不斷擴張的社會物質生產系統和物質財富,同時也制造出社會各個層面的沖突與危機,成為現代社會沖突的主要根源:資本對人的“自然力”(人力資源)的掠奪性使用,產生過剩的貧困化人口,減少市場的有效需求,由此形成經濟危機與社會沖突;資本對自然界的“自然力”(自然資源)的無止境消耗形成生態危機;資本對“社會勞動的自然力”(社會關系)的無止境開發使人淪為“單面人”,產生人的發展危機。由此構成資本擴張悖論,進而演變為社會沖突。這些沖突在不同條件下會采取不同的形式,從而生成不同的社會結構。

    在生產關系相對簡單的資本主義早期階段,社會資本由各個相互競爭的獨立資本所組成,這是最簡單的資本形態,它形成了資本家與無產者之間的對立。資本擴張過程不斷將一切其他社會力量都歸并到這兩大階級的社會經濟政治版圖中,生成一個以階級斗爭為社會結構主軸的時代,形成了以無產階級與資產階級的對抗為軸心的板塊式沖突結構。階級對立簡單化了,“整個社會日益分裂為兩大敵對的陣營,分裂為兩大相互直接對立的階級:資產階級和無產階級”。

    經歷了重重磨難的國際資本要尋求新的擴張路徑,不得不尋求新的形態。這些形態不斷消解著以階級斗爭為軸心的簡單的社會板塊結構:

    無產階級貧困化導致社會有效需求嚴重不足,其結果危害包括資本家在內的全社會。資本家集團出于其“集體理性”而限制單個資本競爭行為,使工人在一定程度上分配到了部分剩余價值。而資本的擴張本性使壟斷資本通過股市重新吸收分散的小額資金,置于其支配、操縱與盤剝之下。由此形成了資本新形態——“大眾資本”,產生了由壟斷資本所操控的資本市場結構。勞動者既被卷入資本與勞動之間的沖突,也被卷入資本市場中的沖突,分散并弱化了社會沖突能量。

    資本運行需要公用設施和公共環境,它們構成全社會資本運行所需要的公用資本。生產公共產品,既能消化過剩資本,又能通過建立社會公共領域形成社會沖突的緩解地帶。

    科技發展提高了對勞動者素質的要求。巨大的就業競爭壓力迫使社會成員將其分配到的勞動價值轉化為人力資本,它要求參與剩余價值分配,使資本與勞動之間的沖突部分地被消解。

    資本擴張對自然資源和生態環境的破壞所形成的社會沖突結構,導致了錯綜復雜的沖突網結構。同時,跨國資本在全球投資所形成的各國之間的相互依賴關系,消解著板塊式國際沖突的能量。部分對抗資本擴張的沖突力量游離于國際社會之外,成為一種不受國家控制的國際恐怖主義力量。

    以上資本新形態消解板塊式社會結構,但資本邏輯并沒有消解,它在各個領域中生成新的沖突:職業市場沖突、產權市場沖突、資本市場沖突、產品市場沖突、公共領域沖突,以及民族文化沖突、種族沖突等等。資本邏輯每時每刻都在獲得新的表現形式:一方面,資本新形態消融著以階級對立為軸心的板塊結構;另一方面,資本強勢者會操縱各個領域,通過這些沖突場使各種資本集中到自己手中。現代社會結構處于兩種相逆的發展趨勢的博弈之中,其結果則取決于具體的社會政治經濟條件。

    當代中國社會正處在歷史與未來的交匯點上。資本新形態在消解以階級對立為軸心的板塊結構的同時,資本強勢者也會千方百計操縱勞動力市場、資本市場、產權市場與公共資源環境領域。如果公共權力與這些資本相結合,便會形成“資本怪胎”,產生兩極分化的階級結構。然而在當代中國社會主義制度下,這種“階級階層結構”只是資本邏輯局部失控的表現,不是中國社會結構的真正發展方向。現代中國處于兩種社會結構模式的沖突與博弈之中。有些學者簡單地以職業為基礎劃分出“中國十大階層”。然而大量社會沖突問題無法納入到“階層論”模型中,如環境問題沖突、土地與產權問題上的沖突、消費者與廠商的沖突等等。這不僅于理論無據,而且人為制造社會疏離,于社會無益。

    在社會主義力量的引導與制約下,資本邏輯將會通過各種新形態使界限分明的“階級階層結構”消解,生成層層嵌套的新型“復雜性網絡結構”,社會矛盾不再尖銳地表現為社會集團分裂,而是縱橫交錯地表現在資本新形態的各種沖突場——職業市場、產品市場、資本市場、資源與環境領域等等之中。因此,當代中國不能奉行“階級與階層”的分析范式,而應當堅持社會主義本質,“解放生產力,發展生產力,消滅剝削,消除兩極分化,最終達到共同富裕”,使這些沖突得到制度化解決方式,努力創造“復雜性社會網絡結構”的生成條件。這就要求我們既充分發揮資本擴張的巨大動力作用,又防止壟斷資本對各種沖突場的操縱,用社會主義價值觀規范和協調產品市場、資本市場、土地等資源市場、生態環境領域的復雜的利益沖突,將各種資本力量納入到有利于社會公共利益的軌道;在各種沖突場中,使政策的天平傾向于缺乏資本力量的弱勢方(并非“弱勢階層”,如消費者等),創造公平的市場環境;通過加強農村基礎教育,培育農村貧困人口的人力資本等等,使資本力量的弱勢方補償性地獲得新資本形態。實現社會公平,建設社會主義的和諧社會。

    (摘自《哲學研究》2006年第12期。錄入編輯:乾乾)

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