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    學術批評

    【劉麗艷】加強科研倫理和學風建設

     

    科技創新要取得突破,不僅需要基礎設施等“硬件”支撐,更需要政策、制度、文化等“軟件”保障。習近平總書記在全國教育大會上強調,要“扭轉不科學的教育評價導向,堅決克服唯分數、唯升學、唯文憑、唯論文、唯帽子的頑瘴痼疾”。今年《政府工作報告》提出,“加強科研倫理和學風建設,懲戒學術不端,力戒浮躁之風”“營造良好的科研生態”。這為進一步改善我國科研創新軟環境提出了明確要求和著力點。

    當前,我國科研工作者普遍認同科研倫理的重要性。據中國科技協會調研顯示,九成受訪者同意“如果忽略了科研倫理,科學研究可能會誤入歧途”,但遵守倫理規范的自覺性和主動性亟須加強。在參與調研的人群中,自認為對科研誠信之外的科研倫理規范了解較多的受訪者僅占5%

    近年來,我國人才評價制度不完善不科學問題越來越突出,“唯分數、唯升學、唯文憑、唯論文、唯帽子”現象成為科研創新和人才評價的一大痼疾。客觀來看,分數、文憑、論文等指標在一定程度上反映了個體或集體發展的成績,為防止評價中主觀因素的干擾提供了某些客觀的參照。然而一旦把評價標準“形式化”“絕對化”,則會產生種種問題。其主要表現有:

    一是背離科研初衷,違背科學精神。科學研究本身有其規律,不能單純使用計數和計件方式去衡量科研人員的能力和科研成果的質量。二是致使部分科研人員急功近利,引發大量學術泡沫現象,不僅惡化了學術環境,使得學術風氣日益浮躁,降低了科研創新的實效,還催生了不少學術不端事件。

    加強科研倫理和學風建設,營造良好的科研生態,是當前克服“五唯”、完善人才評價制度的有效措施,也是增加廣大科研人員獲得感、幸福感的內在要求。

    加強科研倫理教育引導,促進學術自律。科學研究可以大膽假設,但科研人員必須遵守學術規則與科研倫理。我國目前雖開展了增強科研倫理的教育活動,但質量和水平仍需提高。尤其針對在校生的教育培訓更要加強,目的是讓他們在學術生涯的起步階段,就養成崇尚科學精神、遵循科研倫理、嚴守學術規范的良好習慣,為建設創新型國家提供堅實的、負責任的人才支撐。同時,要加強教育引導,促進學術自律,提升廣大科研人員的道德素質。一方面,應將科研倫理規范納入科研人員考評范圍,推行品德考核負面清單制度。對于各級教師,可將科研倫理規范納入教師聘任合同,實行教師學術行為信用登記制度,建設信用數據庫,強化教師的學術自律意識;另一方面,要加強科研倫理的宣傳和教育,將誠信教育貫穿于學生培養的全過程,在新生第一課、入學教育等環節加入科研倫理教育內容,在課程體系中增設學術道德倫理系列課程,并通過創新教育載體,如定期舉辦“學術誠信周”、召開系列研討會、定期出版科研誠信刊物等靈活多樣的方式讓科研人員深刻領會科學研究的倫理精神,營造良好的學術自律氛圍。

    深化體制改革,完善人才評價機制。人才評價機制改革是高校優化科研“軟環境”的重點工作,完善人才評價制度有利于更好地實現人盡其才、才盡其用。當前,部分高校已經嘗試在人才評價中把“一把尺子量到底”改為“干什么,評什么”,突出教學與科研并重,堅持師德為先、教學為要,注重憑能力、實績和貢獻評價教師,通過設置多元化的評價標準不斷完善科研評價制度。根據筆者走訪調研,具體做法包括:一是通過設置教學型教授崗位,實施教師教學評價制度,開展教學工作獎勵,重獎在教學方面取得卓越成就的教師等,引導高層次人才走上教學第一線,激發教師教學積極性和創造性。二是根據不同類型教師的崗位職責和工作特點,分類分層次分學科制定考核辦法,將薄弱學科單列管理,獨立列選、認定相關科研項目和研究成果,實行職稱評聘單評、單列制度。三是建立職稱評審代表作制度,從“評論文”改為評成果,教師可從論文、論著、精品課程、教學案例、專利、研究報告等不同成果中,選擇最能體現其能力水平的作為職稱評審中的代表作品。這些工作在引導高校教師在科學研究中誠實守信、客觀公正、遵紀守法,以較高的專業水準擔負起教書育人的責任,營造風清氣正、互學互鑒、積極向上的學術生態方面發揮了積極作用。

    強化監督管理,加大懲治學術不端行為的力度。建議相關部門加強倫理審查,建設倫理審查委員會。當前,科研倫理管理制度和組織建設嚴重滯后。需要從深層次的監管理念加以重視,建立健全對科研倫理問題的監督、調查、處理和爭端解決機制,加大對違規行為的查處和懲治力度。對于高等院校來說,應當建立完善的學術治理和監管體系,對科研活動的全過程實行強有力的監管,采取“零寬容”政策,決不讓弄虛作假、剽竊抄襲行為有立足之地。目前,科研倫理和學風建設問題已經引起高度關注,建議相關部門加快推進懲戒學術不端行為的法律法規建設,加大行政監管力度,將其納入國家教育督導工作,探索構建國家、省市、學校等分工協作的監管機制。

    我國有世界上最大規模的科技人才隊伍,科研倫理和學風建設事關我國創新型國家建設。只有加強科研倫理和學風建設,教育引導廣大科研人員樹立良好學術道德,遵守學術規范,才能更好釋放人才第一資源的潛能,讓各類英才競現、創新成果涌動。

    (來源:《光明日報》20190325 16版))

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