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    學術批評

    【陳先哲】學術不是錦標賽

     

    近年來,我國學術制度發生了比較明顯的變遷,探索出一套計劃和市場結合并行而有效的模式并用于高校管理和學術管理:在宏觀體制層面采用計劃和行政手段,而在微觀激勵機制層面則采取類似市場競爭的手段。這種類似錦標賽的學術制度,最初源于我國試圖通過體制機制的改革促進高校提高科研生產效率,并建立了各種不同級別的評價指標對高校進行評估和排名。但是,在產生強激勵的同時也誘發了一些副作用,尤其是出現“五唯”問題。筆者曾經對多所不同類型高校進行研究,發現無論是從高校組織層面和教師個體層面分析,學術錦標賽都產生了激勵異化。

    學術錦標賽帶來的激勵異化

    一方面,從高校組織層面看,學術錦標賽造成高校辦學同質化和功利化問題嚴重。首先,學術錦標賽并不適用于所有類型的高校,在政策“一刀切”的情況下,以前常常會出現競爭性模仿并導致高校辦學同質化的情況。競爭性模仿的最常用手段一是“按指標辦學”:我國無論是哪個版本的高校排名基本都是將學術成果的產出作為最重要的指標,盡管很多高校校長口頭上未必承認在意高校排名,但事實上卻可能都在暗中較勁,甚至在辦學中迎合這些評價指標。二是向“成功”組織學習:高職高專會模仿本科辦學,教學型高校和教學研究型高校會模仿研究型高校辦學,尤其是其制度設計與安排。在這雙重作用下,競爭性模仿所產生的輻射效應不斷擴散,并造成我國高校整體性的辦學模式趨同。這進而帶來的問題是造成高校人才培養的巨大供需矛盾:一邊是大量的大學都按照學術型人才培養導致畢業生就業難,另一邊應用型、技術型的人才又非常緊缺,結構性矛盾的問題突出。其次,高校辦學功利化情況嚴重。在大部分的評價指標里,科研業績都是占比最重也最好衡量的,因此大部分的高校都會不顧自身的特色和定位賣力發展科研。這也是如今高校各種“搶人”大戰的直接原因:看似是高校不惜重金、“求才若渴”,但實質上更多是高校在學術錦標賽下不得已而為之。而且高等教育目的在這個過程中也產生了異化:大學常常只是需要性價比高的學術勞動力為提高排名做貢獻,而不太考慮要為人類文明傳續和創新貢獻大學特有的價值。這種高等教育目的觀下的評價指標和績效標準有時甚至可謂簡單粗暴,也隨之產生很多“五唯”的典型癥候:從“文憑”看,洋博士比土博士值錢;從“論文”看,SCISSCI比國內期刊值錢;從“帽子”看,有帽子比沒帽子值錢。

    另一方面,從高校教師個體層面看,學術錦標賽誘發高校教師利益分化和工具主義。首先,學術錦標賽并不適用于所有高校教師,尤其是基數最大的教學型高校和高職高專的教師。這些高校教師多難以從這種制度中獲益,無法形成有效激勵,學術發展趨于邊緣化。事實上即便是研究型高校,也只是少數人能夠達到具備生產高水平學術成果能力的要求。因此,這種以少數拔尖人才為目標的學術制度設計很難獲得教學型高校和高職高專教師的普遍認同。而且他們也會因為所在學校的“被平庸”,逐漸自甘平庸或自我邊緣化,并產生惡性循環。其次,即便對于更容易從學術錦標賽中獲利的研究型高校教師而言,在學術產量獲得提升的同時卻變得更加功利化。其功利化有兩種典型:一是減少教學投入將更多時間用到科研中去,二是選擇符合獎勵標準的短平快研究。第一種的害處在于對人才培養的怠慢,損害了學生的利益。在學術錦標賽下,不少高校教師都把大部分的精力投入到各種科研論文、項目和人才頭銜的爭奪中去,人才培養常常被選擇性地“犧牲”了。第二種的害處在于妨礙了真正的學術創新行動的產生。調查發現,在學術錦標賽下不少研究型大學教師更多是為了獲得制度利益或防止被淘汰而產生積極學術行動,而并非發自內心的學術追求。盡管學術評價機制也一直在進步,但也只是從以往的簡單統計論文、課題數量到如今統計高影響因子論文和高級別課題的數量而已,很多教師只是根據指標的變化而發表,不但難以享受到學術帶來的樂趣,也妨礙了真正的學術創新行動的產生,更無助于整個國家的學術創新。

    學術錦標賽的政策糾偏

    首先,回歸初心,重思高等教育目的。高校最基本的職能是人才培養,隨著高等教育的發展,科學研究和服務社會等其他職能紛紛涌現,但無論如何都不應喧賓奪主。學術錦標賽的異化帶來的突出問題就在于使得高校愈來愈像研究機構而不是以培養人才為根本使命的教育組織。在過去學術錦標賽盛行的階段,我國很多高校除了科研成績光鮮之外,在其他方面的表現尤其人才培養方面卻乏善可陳。因為過于注重科研成績提升,但卻沒有建立起一種科研與教學良性互促的機制。因此,新時代對學術錦標賽進行政策糾偏的出發點,一定要回歸到教育初心,教育部長陳寶生提出“四個回歸”亦是此意,應當緊緊圍繞人才培養為基本點,建立“教學-科研”互促機制。

    其次,頂層設計,建立高校分類發展政策體系。學術錦標賽下中國高校獲得很快速的發展,但也存在不少需要引以為鑒的政策弊端。特別是基本沒有對高校進行分類指導,而是將所有的高校都納入到以科研競賽為主的評價指標體系中。當前這個問題已經得到國家層面的重視,在頂層設計層面上已經有較好的改革思路。《中國教育現代化2035》明確提出:“分類建設一批世界一流高等學校,建立完善的高等學校分類發展政策體系,引導高等學校科學定位、特色發展”。這種改革思路更加注重了高等教育體系建設,比如“雙一流”建設、推動應用型本科轉型和現代職業教育體系建設三線并進,其實是對以往學術錦標賽所出現問題的一種政策糾偏。通過分類管理和評價,可以避免所有不同類別的高校參與同一學術評價指標體系的比拼,才利于各類高校合理定位和辦出特色,從而產生更多各具特色的一流院校。

    最后,破除“五唯”,對高校教師進行分類評價。錦標賽制是企業常用的績效機制,但高校和企業的本質有很大差異,不能簡單地進行制度復制。尤其是在制度設計上不能僅僅是出于“經濟人”的考慮,而忽視了高校教師作為“知識人”或“理念人”的特質。而且,不但不同類型高校的教師各有所長,就算是同一高校、同一學科的老師都千差萬別,不應用同一把尺子去量不同的人。“百花齊放才是春”,國家大力推進破除“五唯”的真正用意也在于此,要讓不同的人才都能得到合理、科學的評價。因此,應在高校分類評價的基礎上,更要進一步對高校教師進行分類評價。要探索多維度多層次評價,扭轉讓教師評價指標單一,過于依賴“文憑”“論文”“帽子”的局面,讓教師在教學、科研、人才培養、社會服務等方面貢獻度都能得到合理體現。更要創設潛心育人和治學的制度環境,讓高校教師重拾“十年磨一劍”的從容淡定,守正創新,立德樹人。

    (作者:陳先哲,系華南師范大學教育科學學院教授,廣州市教育治理現代化高等研究中心研究員。基金項目:國家社科基金教育學一般課題〔BIA170170〕)

     

    (來源:《光明日報》20190507 13版)

     

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