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    學術批評

    【張星宇】淺析當代哲學學術共同體與學術工業

     

    哲學, 這個詞每次說出口來, 即使是接觸哲學至今已然十一年的我, 依然會感到一股濃厚的乖離感, 一種與此時此地此岸, 與人的生活相悖的意味, 這是誠實的交代。對一個人解釋說我是學哲學的, 我就能從對方的眼神中感受到這樣的味道。只不過在這種場景下, 脫軌的不僅是哲學, 也是我自己。哲學從業者亦是一個很有趣的詞, 我十分喜歡使用這個詞, 這個詞表達了哲學是一種行業, 它以行業的形態與人連結起來, 以哲學自身而言, 這個詞從頭到腳都充滿著諷刺的幽默感, 與之前那種彼岸的自知形成對子。哲學真的可以是一種行業嗎?無論這個問題的答案應該是什么, 也無論部分有志于哲學的學者學生是否樂意接受它, 如今的哲學確實如此。

    因此, 作為行業的哲學”, 與作為從業者的”, 這對組合相遇時的奇妙反應時常讓我……說是魂牽夢縈并不過分:我時常思考二者, 思考自己以及其他同行與哲學的關系。不得不承認, 我喜歡諷刺和乖離感, 從事哲學這個選擇就印證了我如是的傾向性。或許一旦這樣的乖離被指出, 正常情況下對于哲學從業者而言就是一種冒犯, 會令他們感到挫敗, 但我的喜好則另有深層次的哲學的理由。

    當代哲學已經發展為一種學術工業, 自擁一套嚴謹的體制, 誠然, 它喪失了古時的自在魅力, 它就像我讀研以后寫的文章一樣, 力圖精準與科學性, 謀求在新時代里能被人認可的新位置。它就像一個老人, 一個不甘落后的老人, 一個不甘落后卻不再泰然的老人, 時間跨度上看它也確實是老了:它的老態隨分析哲學這個流派的產生展露出來, 它的老態暫時不會消失, 可以期待一個光怪陸離魔幻現實交織的未來, 換句話說, 一個科學或科學方法不再統御文明的未來, 它能夠涅槃重生。它又像一個孩子, 一個急于得到認可的孩子, 一個不再可以忍受離群的孩子, 它看到科學被頂禮膜拜, 它心生妒意, 但它不介意照著科學的樣子改變自己, 從哲學工業的誕生來算, 它也確實只是個孩子。然而科學只要依然有效, 依然扮演著為人類創造價值的主角, 哲學就無法在如是的自卑感中抽離自身, 而科學與科學方法至今并未展露出一絲一毫的疲態。

    于是我提到了分析哲學, 分析哲學于我, 于哲學本身而言皆是一個矛盾的存在。它誕生的初衷之一是使哲學人不自說自話, 為了讓哲學人真的能群策群力, 共同推著哲學往前走, 這是美好的初衷。可另一方面, 為什么哲學人突然需要群策群力了呢?為什么哲學人突然迫切的需要交流了呢?為什么哲學人突然認為個別哲學家已經無法獨力推著哲學往前走了呢?

    答案是哲學在這個時代的自卑感與自恃甚高的矛盾, 答案是哲學對科學的妒忌。

    分析哲學仿照科學建立了哲學的范式, 創造了分析哲學的學術共同體, 推進了哲學的產業化。哲學因此漸漸剝離了自身的藝術感與生命力, 它有了內部的話語體系, 它被賦予了復雜的技術, 變成了一個允許集體運作的學術——同時它也不再允許圈外人的介入。它改變了哲學人, 從此哲學人應當被稱作哲學從業者”, “民哲這個詞匯像民科一樣有了自己的所指, 并且不被包含于哲學從業者之內。

    人是哲學的什么?就哲學本身而言, 人是哲學的對象;就哲學學術或哲學行業而言, 人是哲學的主體。毫無疑問, 不是只有哲學變成了行業”, 一切學科亦然, 但為什么偏偏哲學的行業化是難以被人接受的?不得不承認, 哲學與人本身就是疏離的, 一本500頁的哲學史, 30頁以后的哲學就已經不再是求知欲這樣的人性可以概括的東西了——顯然這是一種浪漫主義, 一種只在概念上為真的事情。與哲學在這一點上類似的還有”:迄今為止, “不曾被證明其客觀存在, “作為人的造物, 概念上亦理應與人疏離, 但誰又不曾被理神論說服過?我們只能充當兩面派, 一方面覺得神理應無關與人, 一方面同意神是人的造物。哲學亦是如此, 21世紀的大科學學術建制之下, 在大學與研究所中, 我們沒有為哲學挑選其他存在形式的余地, 哲學只能如此存在, 必須如此存在, 但許多哲學人也同時明白, 哲學不應該如此存在著。某種程度上, 哲學這個學科中很大一部分應該被理解為固有成分的部分, 已經被時代淘汰了, 就像時代已經淘汰狩獵與注定淘汰農耕這類生產生活方式一樣。

    哲學從業者亦是如此的兩面派, 他們一方面難以放棄哲學至上的執念, 一方面又不得不努力使哲學成為允許被集體運作的、契合本時代的學術工業。后一句話并不是一種選擇, 是無奈。在國內的在線問答平臺知乎, 幾乎所有表現活躍的哲學從業者, 其文章都表現出鮮明的分析風格, 這也不是因為分析派勢眾 (雖然分析派在國內確實勢眾) , 而是因為非分析的套路根本無法在知乎這種以構建交流”“傳播知識為己任的問答平臺找到適合自己的角色。或許意識到這一點的答主, 其本人并非分析派, 只是精通分析技術罷了, 另一部分則傾心于分析哲學本身, 但絕大多數人, 則并非傾心于哲學, 而是傾心于身處哲學行業”——哲學是一種工作, 成為了一個糊口的行當, 雖然它本不應該如此。

    當平臺從國內擴大為整個國際哲學圈, 結論依然類似。世界上有多少哲學從業者, 是哲學作為產業所需要, 而哲學作為哲學所不需要的呢?有多少高校哲學研究人員以產業謀生計, 而無法為哲學本身貢獻哪怕一絲一毫呢?哲學工業這個詞立于哲學來看已經足夠不堪了, 那哲學商業呢?

    哲學實然是人的哲學, 但我以為的應然則是:人對待哲學, 能夠像對待藝術、對待自己的孩子、對待某種生命體一樣。哲學應是解決了生存問題之后的追求, 是源于閑暇的興趣。哲學應是作品, 在這之后它才可以成為產品或商品, 而非僅僅成為產品或商品。不得不承認, 在學術工業的體制, 在大科學的時代來臨之前, 幾乎所有的人類學術成就皆是研究者的興趣與個人追求的產物, 為什么只有哲學在學術工業建設的時代潮流之下很大程度上喪失了它的魅力?最底層的原因自然是:哲學根本不是一種科學, 哲學的方法與科學方法根本不同, 縱然當代哲學人正在極力仿照科學的方法塑造哲學的共同體, 從結果上和工作方法上來看, 哲學依然沒有在如此形態之下產生過什么整個學術圈都認可的學術成果, 哲學從業者的工作方法也從來也不是多人協作的。

    而最有趣的問題恰恰是:哲學這個東西, 真的會在交流中成長嗎?它真的像數學及科學一樣, 適合被當做一個集體運作的對象得以進步嗎?今天的多數哲學從業者是否有足夠的勇氣與魅力承認哪怕討論哲學是否是個人性的這個命題呢?

    這些問題最終將發展為如是的兩個問題:選擇從事哲學時, 人應該選擇什么, 應該放棄什么, 又難以放棄什么?假設從事哲學的門檻并非僅僅是高考與考研, 又應該是哪些條件呢?

    (原載《漢字文化 201906)

     

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