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    學術批評

    【高耀】弘揚科學家精神 打造良好科研文化

    近日,中共中央辦公廳、國務院辦公廳聯合印發了《關于進一步弘揚科學家精神加強作風和學風建設的意見》(以下簡稱《意見》),《意見》指出,為激勵和引導廣大科技工作者追求真理、勇攀高峰,需要加強作風和學風建設,營造風清氣正的科研環境。崇尚學術民主,堅守誠信底線,反對浮夸浮躁、投機取巧,反對科研領域“圈子”文化。

    《意見》的出臺是繼2018年5月中共中央辦公廳、國務院辦公廳印發《關于進一步加強科研誠信建設的若干意見》后,國家層面又一次為加強科研文化建設,在全社會營造尊重科研、尊重人才的良好氛圍而做出的戰略部署和要求。《意見》的出臺充分體現了黨中央、國務院對科研誠信建設、科研作風和學風建設的高度重視。

    一部科學史,其實也是一部科學家的精神史。他們在為科研事業而奮斗的過程中形成了勇攀高峰、敢為人先的創新精神,追求真理、嚴謹治學的求實精神,淡泊名利、潛心研究的奉獻精神,集智攻關、團結協作的協同精神,甘為人梯、獎掖后學的育人精神。弘揚科學家精神,對營造良好科研環境,推動科技創新至關重要。

    黨的十九大以來,我國深入實施創新驅動發展戰略,加快創新型國家建設步伐,科技創新實現了歷史性和整體性的重大變化,已成為一個具有全球重要影響力的科技創新大國。為使我國進一步由科技創新大國向世界科技強國轉變,則需要繼續加強創新科研成果產出,而科研創新成果的不斷涌現又依賴于風清氣正的科研環境。

    科研環境和科研文化對科研人員的科研活動起著重要的形塑作用。一方面,科學研究活動有其自身的內在邏輯和規律,創新的科研成果均是在不斷質疑、爭鳴、論爭循環中產生的,需要科研工作者時刻樹立懷疑精神,敢于挑戰權威,崇尚學術民主。另一方面,科學研究活動充滿風險性、未知性和不確定性,因此需要科技工作者時刻堅守科研誠信底線,恪守學術道德。但在現實中,各種違背科研誠信的行為時有發生,亟待進一步加強科研誠信建設、營造誠實守信的良好科研環境和科研文化。《意見》中明確指出,嚴禁違規將科研任務轉包、分包他人,嚴禁隨意降低目標任務和約定要求,嚴禁以項目實施周期外或不相關成果充抵交差。反對無實質學術貢獻者“掛名”,導師、科研項目負責人不得在成果署名、知識產權歸屬等方面侵占學生、團隊成員的合法權益。不參加自己不熟悉領域的咨詢評審活動,不在情況不掌握、內容不了解的意見建議上署名簽字。《意見》中這些細致性規定的出臺既針砭時弊,又意義深遠。

    風清氣正的科研環境是創新科研成果涌現的先決條件,也是打造良好科研文化的重要基礎。創新科研成果的不斷涌現既需要加大對科學研究的投入力度,同時需要依賴于良好的科研環境和文化。科研工作者潛心學術研究工作,默默進行科研領域的探索和奉獻工作,不斷追求真理、勇攀科研高峰,最需要的就是風清氣正的科研環境。正如《意見》指出的那樣:風清氣正的科研環境需要尊重他人學術話語權,反對門戶偏見和“學閥”作風;需要科研工作者堅守學術誠信底線,對嚴重失信行為“終身追究”“一票否決”;需要反對浮夸浮躁、投機取巧,堅持實事求是,“板凳坐得十年冷”;需要反對科研領域的各種“圈子”文化,破除各種利益紐帶和人身依附關系。

    《意見》的出臺,更加有助于在全社會培育和踐行社會主義核心價值觀,弘揚科學家精神,發揮價值引領,努力形成尊重科學、尊重人才的良好氛圍,為我國科技強國建設奠定堅實的社會文化基礎;更加有助于營造良好的學術生態文化和風清氣正的科研環境,激發科技工作者的創新創造活力;更加有助于增強學術道德建設、科研誠信建設、作風和學風建設,有助于減少各類學術腐敗和學術不端行為的發生;更加有助于打破科研領域的“論資排輩”現象和“圈子”文化,從而為青年后備科技人才的脫穎而出打造更加有利的科研文化。

    當然,任何政策和舉措想要取得理想的預期效果,離不開實踐層面各方主體的認真貫徹落實。風清氣正的科研環境和科研文化的塑造需要久久為功,絕非一朝一夕所能輕易達成。因此,各地區、各部門應認真領會《意見》中的精神要旨,各有關方面要對《意見》落實情況加強跟蹤督辦和總結評估,確保各項舉措落到實處。

    (作者系天津大學教育學院副教授)

     

    (原載《中國教育報》201906月14日第002版)

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