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    新興領域

    【邱仁宗】應對新興科技帶來的倫理挑戰

     

    基因技術、3D打印、人工智能、大數據、納米技術等新興科技在為人類社會帶來巨大便利的同時,也可能帶來巨大風險和挑戰。例如,人工智能技術可以讓人類從一般的智能活動中解脫出來,集中精力從事各種創新性發現、發明活動。然而,人工智能系統一旦失去控制或被不正當利用,就有可能對人類構成重大威脅。因而,人們在享受新興科技帶來的便利的同時,必須保持審慎態度,有效應對新興科技可能帶來的倫理挑戰。

    新興科技所帶來的倫理影響紛繁復雜,且彼此之間相互影響、相互作用,加之相關經驗和知識積累不夠充分,導致人們目前對新興科技可能引發的倫理挑戰還難以精準預測和把握,這加劇了新興科技使用中的不確定性。例如,當今困擾許多國家甚至全世界的糧食、營養、能源、環境保護和防病治病等問題也許可以通過合成生物的技術來解決。如果將合成的基因組置于細胞內,制造出新的能源、新的可生物降解塑料、清潔環境的新工具、富有營養的蛋白質以及藥物和疫苗,那么,由合成細胞產生的產品不僅是全新的,而且更干凈、更好、更便宜。然而,與其他新興技術一樣,合成生物技術既可為人類造福,也可能帶來風險隱患。合成生物技術具有較簡便實用、容易掌握、成本低廉等特點,但也有可能被惡意利用,甚至制造出流行的病毒。這說明,為了更好地發展、利用合成生物技術,有必要對其可能帶來的倫理風險作出預判和防范,并進行正確引導。

    新興科技的迅猛發展還可能導致一些新的倫理問題。當人類作出涉及未來的決策時,人工智能技術往往能夠發揮一定的積極作用。人工智能技術能夠在大數據中發現并總結出人們行為的規律,然后據此預測某人或某群體未來采取某種行動的可能性。比如,消費者有多大可能購買某種商品,什么人可能擔任企業的高級執行官,某種疾病在某一地區或國家發生的概率有多大,等等。在此基礎上,人工智能技術會引導人們作出相應的干預策略。但也要看到,人工智能技術所發現的規律一般是根據大數據識別出來的,而大數據往往是人們以往行為留下的信息,根據這種以往行為留下的信息預測未來行為,很可能發生偏差或造成偏見,出現倫理問題。

    因此,在制定關于新興科技的創新、研發、應用政策和戰略時,不能簡單采取“技術先行”或“干了再說”的辦法,而要充分考慮新興科技可能引發的倫理風險和挑戰。對科技的管理不能僅僅著眼于效益和產出,還應著眼于能否實現基本的倫理價值,如科技成果能否增進人民的健康、能否保護環境以及維護社會安全等。這就要求在立項之前對新興科技進行充分的倫理研究,倫理學工作者要為制定合適的監管辦法積極提供倫理學根據。

    新興科技具有設備精密、技術復雜、知識結構繁復等特點,這使得科技工作者大多集中精力于科學技術問題,往往無暇關注所涉及的倫理、法律等問題。此外,還有極個別科技工作者受利益驅動做出有悖倫理規范的行為。這就要進一步加強對科研活動的倫理規范和監督,有效防范相關倫理風險。

    隨著新興科技的迅猛發展,倫理學工作者不能坐而論道,也不能對科技發展中的問題就事論事,而要將理論與實際聯系起來,運用倫理學的理論和方法加以分析研究。可以先研究制訂一套初步的、暫行的倫理規范和管理辦法,隨著相關知識、經驗不斷豐富而適時加以調整和完善,將新興科技可能引發的倫理風險降到最低。此外,還應將科技工作者和科學共同體的自我監督同政府主管部門以及相關立法機構的監管有機結合,嚴格實行問責制和公開制,以有效應對新興科技可能引發的倫理挑戰。

     來源: 人民日報

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